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dc.contributor.authorHeffron, Renee-
dc.contributor.authorDonnell, Deborah-
dc.contributor.authorRees, Helen-
dc.contributor.authorCelum, Connie-
dc.contributor.authorMugo, Nelly-
dc.contributor.authorWere, Edwin-
dc.contributor.authorBruyn, Guy de-
dc.contributor.authorNakku-Joloba, Edith-
dc.contributor.authorNgure, Kenneth-
dc.contributor.authorKiarie, James-
dc.contributor.authorCoombs, Robert W.-
dc.contributor.authorBaeten, Jared M.-
dc.contributor.authorPartners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study Team-
dc.description.abstractBackground Hormonal contraceptives are used widely but their effects on HIV-1 risk are unclear. Methods We followed 3790 heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples from seven African countries participating in two longitudinal HIV-1 incidence studies. Among hormonal contraceptive users (including injectable and oral contraceptive users) and nonusers, we compared rates of HIV-1 acquisition in women and HIV-1 transmission from women to men. Findings Among 1314 couples in which the HIV-1 seronegative partner was female, HIV-1 acquisition rates were 6.61 and 3.78 per 100 person-years among hormonal contraceptive users and nonusers (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]=1.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06–3.68, p=0.03). Among 2476 couples in which the HIV-1 seronegative partner was male, HIV-1 transmission rates from women to men were 2.61 and 1.51 per 100 person-years in those whose partners currently used versus did not use hormonal contraception (AHR=1.97, 95% CI 1.12–3.45, p=0.02). In subgroup analysis, injectable contraceptive users had increased risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV-1 to their partner and HIV-1 seropositive women using injectable contraception had higher genital HIV-1 RNA concentrations, suggesting a mechanism for increased transmission risk. Oral contraceptives were used too infrequently to draw definitive conclusions about HIV-1 risk. Interpretation Women should be counseled about potentially increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition and transmission with hormonal contraception, particularly injectable methods, and about the importance of dual protection with condoms to decrease HIV-1 risk. Non-hormonal or lower-dose hormonal contraceptive methods should be considered for women with or at-risk for HIV-1. Funding National Institutes of Health (R03 HD068143, R01 AI083034, P30 AI027757, and T32 AI007140) and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (26469 and 41185).en_US
dc.subjectHormonal contraceptionen_US
dc.subjectSerodiscordant couplesen_US
dc.titleUse of hormonal contraceptives and risk of HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort studyen_US
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