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|Title:||Risk assessment of cystic hydatidosis in cattle slaughtered at Busia Town Abattoirs Kenya|
|Authors:||Ogutu, Henry Joash Otieno|
|Abstract:||Introduction: Hydatidosis, a re-emerging parasitic zoonosis caused by larval stage of Echinococcus is endemic in South America, Asia and East Africa including Kenya. Globally, hydatidosis causes economic losses of more than three billion United States Dollars (USD) annually and in Kenya, losses are more than 240,000 USD. Known risk factors for transmission of E. granulosus include allowing dogs to roam freely, feeding dogs on infested viscera, slaughtering animals at home which lead to improper disposal of infested organs and carcasses, drinking non-boiled water, eating raw vegetables, failing to wash hands before meals, presence of wild carnivores near homesteads, low knowledge, attitude (KAP) and poor practices and uncontrolled movement of livestock from endemic to non-endemic areas. Busia offers livestock market for Kenya and Uganda. Objectives: The study estimated prevalence, identified possible risk of CH to Busia, and assessed KAP among cattle owners, traders and abattoir workers. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on cattle slaughtered in two Busia town abattoirs between May and June 2018. In-person interviews were done using a structured questionnaire to assess KAP of participants on hydatidosis and establish origin of each slaughtered animal. Routine meat inspection was done to determine CH infestation status of carcasses. Whole cysts were removed and put in labelled and zipped polythene bags for confirmation using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and Epi info to calculate proportions, 95% confidence intervals and do logistic regressions for associated factors respectively. We used bivariate and logistic regression to examine factors associated with knowledge on CH among study participants. Results: A total of 302 carcasses; 222 (73.51%) males and 80 (26.49%) females were inspected and 310 questionnaires administered to participants. Nine (2.98%, 95% CI: 1.46-5.78) carcasses were positive for hydatidosis; eight (88.89%) carcasses were female and five of the nine positive cases (55.56%) had multiple organ infestations. Main infested organs were liver (n=7) and lung (n=4). Total samples collected were 14, of which 13 (92.86%) were positive on PCR test. All the positive carcasses were from West Pokot County which was a major risk. Male participants were 260 (83.87%, 95% CI: 79.19 – 87.69); median age was 41 years (range = 21-69). Participants with adequate knowledge were 40 (12.90%) and with good attitude were 123 (39.68%). Dog keepers were 221 (71.99%, 95% CI: 66.55 – 76.87) of which 83 (37.56%, 95% CI: 28.33 – 48.52) improperly disposed of dog faeces. Home slaughtering was practiced by 196 (63.23%, 95% CI: 58.78-69.80); 115 (58.67%, 95% CI: 51.44-65.64) were not inspected and 85 (43.37%, 95% CI: 36.32-50.62) of raw organs fed to dogs. Conclusions: The study reported a prevalence of 2.98% for CH in Busia, however all cases were imported from West Pokot. The imported cattle from West Pokot via cross county trade were a major risk factor for introducing the parasite to Busia. Furthermore, communities in Busia are unfamiliar with CH and engage in practices that may increase their risk of infestation. Recommendations: To reduce the risk of introducing the parasite into Busia, proper meat inspection should be done and infested organs or carcasses be condemned and properly disposed of as animals from endemic areas are screened for CH before being allowed for slaughter in Busia County. Busia communities need public health education to improve their KAP on CH and also to practice responsible dog ownership. Future studies can focus on prevalence of CH in humans and dogs in Busia|
|Appears in Collections:||School of Public Health|
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